EASO COI Report. Security situation


This report provides an overview of the main security trends and incidents at national level in the period January 2020 – 30 June 2021, as well as details on conflict dynamics, territorial control/influence, and armed actors at regional level. Finally, the report provides regional details about incidents, their impact on civilian life, internal displacement, and conflict related humanitarian issues.

The report builds upon preceding EASO COI reports of the same project/study with focus on Somalia: Actors, Targeted profiles and Key socio-economic indicators. They were published in the period July-September 2021. They should be read in conjunction with one another. This series of COI reports provide relevant information on international protection status determination for Somali asylum seekers and will be used in the development of EASO country guidance note on Somalia.

This report was jointly written by the COI Sector of EASO, together with contributions from ACCORD (Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation). EASO would like to acknowledge ACCORD as the co-drafter of this report.

The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report, together with EASO:

- The Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MINBUZA), Country of Origin Information Unit

- Dr. Ken Menkhaus, Professor of Political Science at Davidson College, North Carolina (US). Professor Menkhaus is specialised on the politics of the Horn of Africa, with particular focus on Somalia, about which he has extensively published on topics including security, conflict analysis, peace operations, state failure, state-building, humanitarianism, and political Islam.

The drafting of this report was finalised on 20 August 2021, however the reference period of the report covers the period 2020 – 30 June 2021, or earlier whenever relevant. Any event taking place after 30 June is not included in this report. Some additional information was added during the finalisation phase in response to feedback received during the quality control process, until 27 August 2021.

This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).


After the fall of president Siad Barre in 1991, Somalia sank into chaos. Various authorities have taken power since then. Somaliland and Puntland became de facto states independent of Somalia in the 1990's. The general security situation in Somalia is largely determined by a long-term, ongoing, internal armed conflict which has resulted in many Somalis being uprooted or seeking refuge in other countries. In order to assess the need for international protection, the Commissioner General takes into account the fact that there are fundamental differences between the situations in Mogadishu, Central and Southern Somalia on the one hand, and the situation in Somaliland and Puntland on the other.