This Country Focus report on Turkey was written at the request of both the European Parliament and the European Council for general background information and more detailed information relevant for international protection status determination and for the assessment of the applicability of the safe country of origin concept to Turkey.
The report aims at providing an objective and neutral information base (without assessment or policy recommendations). It should be noted that the situation of third country nationals in Turkey (including persons transiting through Turkey or seeking international protection in Turkey) does not fall within the scope of this report.
This report was written, in collaboration with the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), by experts from the national asylum and migration departments of the following countries: Finland, Lithuania and Romania. Prior to publication, this report was presented for review and comment to the German, Greek and Dutch asylum departments. Jean Marcou, Researcher on Turkey, Professor - Director of International Relations - Grenoble Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po Grenoble - France) / Director of the Master of Mediterranean and the Middle Eastern Studies, has reviewed the report as well.
This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology.
The initial collecting of information and drafting of this report was done between April and July 2016. During this period, Turkey became the scene of an attempted coup on 15 July 2016. These events, and the initial responses by the Turkish government, were subsequently also included in the report. The reference period has for this reason been extended until 15 September 2016. An exception to this cut-off date was made for the European Commission’s Communication on EU Enlargement Policy issued 9 November 2016, the main findings of which were incorporated in this report.
The policy implemented by the Commissioner General is based on a thorough analysis of accurate and up-to-date information on the general situation in the country of origin. This information is collated in a professional manner from various, objective sources, including the EASO, the UNHCR, relevant international human rights organisations, non-governmental organisations, professional literature and coverage in the media. When determining policy, the Commissioner General does not only examine the COI Focuses written by Cedoca and published on this website, as these deal with just one aspect of the general situation in the country of origin. The fact that a COI Focus could be out-of-date does not mean that the policy that is being implemented by the Commissioner General is no longer up-to-date.
When assessing an application for asylum, the Commissioner General not only considers the actual situation in the country of origin at the moment of decision-making, he also takes into account the individual situation and personal circumstances of the applicant for international protection. Every asylum application is examined individually. An applicant must comprehensively demonstrate that he has a well-founded fear of persecution or that there is a clear personal risk of serious harm. He cannot, therefore, simply refer back to the general conditions in his country, but must also present concrete, credible and personal facts.
There is no policy paper for this country available on the website.