EASO COI Report. Key socio-economic indicators


The report provides background information and details on key socio-economic indicators in three Somali cities, namely Mogadishu, Garowe, and Hargeisa. These represent the main urban centres in Somalia, including Puntland and Somaliland.

This report provides an overview as well as details about demographic/clan composition, humanitarian issues, mobility and accessibility, socio-economic indicators, and social-protection networks in the above-mentioned cities.

The report builds upon the preceding EASO COI report on Somalia: Actors(July 2021) and belongs to the same Somalia COI project along with the EASO COI report on Somalia: Targeted profiles and EASO’s COI report on Somalia: Security situation (September 2021).

This series of COI reports provide relevant information on international protection status determination for Somali asylum seekers and will be used in the development of EASO country guidance note on Somalia.

EASO would like to acknowledge ACCORD as the drafter of this report. The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report, together with EASO:

- Denmark, Ministry of Immigration and Integration, Danish Immigration Service (DIS), COI Unit

- Greece, General Secretariat for Migration Policy, Greek Asylum Service, Asylum Processes and Training Department

The drafting of this report was finalised on 13 August 2021, while the reference period of the report is January 2020 – 30 June 2021, or earlier whenever relevant. Any event taking place after this period is not included in this report.

This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).


After the fall of president Siad Barre in 1991, Somalia sank into chaos. Various authorities have taken power since then. Somaliland and Puntland became de facto states independent of Somalia in the 1990's. The general security situation in Somalia is largely determined by a long-term, ongoing, internal armed conflict which has resulted in many Somalis being uprooted or seeking refuge in other countries. In order to assess the need for international protection, the Commissioner General takes into account the fact that there are fundamental differences between the situations in Mogadishu, Central and Southern Somalia on the one hand, and the situation in Somaliland and Puntland on the other.


Information about the asylum procedure, tailored to the asylum seeker, can be found at : asyluminbelgium.be.