EASO COI Report. Actors


The purpose of this report is to provide relevant context information in view of the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection. Among others, the report is intended to inform the development of Country Guidance on Somalia (2022). The report provides background information and mapping of relevant state and non-state actors/conflict dynamics in Somalia, upon which subsequent reports will build. These forthcoming EASO COI reports will focus on the Somalia Security Situation, Targeted Profiles and Key Socio Economic Indicators and are due to be published later in 2021. This report provides an overview of the main state and non-state actors in the Somali context, including their armed forces, at federal as well as at member state level. Details on relevant dynamics, territorial control/influence, governance as well as access to justice are also provided. Finally, the report provides an overview about the human rights conduct and abuses of main armed groups/security forces.

This report was jointly written by the COI Sector of EASO, together with contributions from France. EASO would like to acknowledge the Information, Documentation and Research Division (DIDR) COI unit of the French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless People (Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides – OFPRA), as the co-drafter of this report.

The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report, together with EASO:

- Austria, Federal Office for Immigration and Asylum, Country of Origin Information Department, Africa Desk

- Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD).

The drafting of this report was finalised on 14 May 2021; however the reference period of the report covers the period 2020 – 30 April 2021, or earlier whenever relevant. Any event taking place after this date is not included in this report. Some additional information was added during the finalisation phase in response to feedback received during the quality control process, until 18 June 2021.

This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).


After the fall of president Siad Barre in 1991, Somalia sank into chaos. Various authorities have taken power since then. Somaliland and Puntland became de facto states independent of Somalia in the 1990's. The general security situation in Somalia is largely determined by a long-term, ongoing, internal armed conflict which has resulted in many Somalis being uprooted or seeking refuge in other countries. In order to assess the need for international protection, the Commissioner General takes into account the fact that there are fundamental differences between the situations in Mogadishu, Central and Southern Somalia on the one hand, and the situation in Somaliland and Puntland on the other.


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