EASO COI Report. Security situation


The purpose of this security situation report is to provide relevant information for the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection, and in particular for use in updating EASO’s country guidance development on Syria.

This report is part of a series of Syria COI reports produced in 2021.

This report analyses the security situation in Syria, focusing in particular on the situation of the civilian population. The reference period is 2020 and the first three months of 2021. The report is an update of the EASO COI Report Syria – Security situation (May 2020).

The report is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on presenting an overview of the armed conflicts in Syria, current political developments and information on the main parties to the conflict. It goes on to describe the security trends in different parts of Syria during 2020 and first three months of 2021, with a focus on the nature of the violence and impact on civilians. The second part provides a governorate-level description of the security situation. Each governorate chapter includes a map, brief description of the governorate, background conflict dynamics and armed actors present in the area, recent security trends, including information on civilian fatalities, security incidents and trends, armed confrontations (etc.), displacement and return, and civilian infrastructure impacted.

This report was co-drafted by the European Asylum Support Office COI Sector and Finland, Finnish Immigration Service.

The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report:

- The Netherlands, Office for Country Information and Language Analysis, Ministry of Justice (OCILA)

- ACCORD, the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (except Chapters 1, 2.1 and 2.10)

- ARC, the Asylum Research Centre (except Chapters 2.2 - 2.9 and 2.11 - 2.14)

The drafting of this report was finalised on 28 May 2021. Any event taking place after this date is not included in this report.

This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).


Since 2011, Syria has been involved in a bloody, internal armed conflict which has resulted in a very high number of victims, displaced persons and refugees. The opposing parties do not spare the civilian population. Every day, on a large scale and in the most barbaric manner, both the Syrian army and the armed opposition forces violate international humanitarian law and human rights. In many cases, civilians are targeted for ethnic or religious reasons or because they are perceived to be part of another political movement.

In recent years, the Syrian army managed to recapture significant parts of the country from the rebels or jihadists. An analysis of the security situation shows that the number of military confrontations in Syria has clearly decreased since the second half of 2018, that the impact of the conflict in Syria now differs considerably from region to region, and that Syria as of 2020 can be divided into five geographical zones.

The civil war has had a devastating impact on the civilian population. There are estimated to be a total of 13.4 million Syrians who, as a result of the armed conflict, require humanitarian assistance. This is an increase of 21% compared to 2020. More than 90% are said to be living below the poverty line. 6.1 million Syrians are displaced within Syria. In addition, 5.6 million have fled the country.